By Joe Coscarelli. ATLANTA — Between the summer of , when the Atlanta rapper Lil Baby got out of prison on drug and gun charges, and the end of , when he solidified himself as a formidable presence in hip-hop, he released seven full-length bodies of music, resulting in a pile of smash singles that have gone platinum a combined 12 times over. All told, songs by Lil Baby, who had never rapped before his two-year incarceration, have been streamed more than 11 billion times around the world. The concept of celebrity still makes him bristle, and his public appearances remain limited to the ones that pay handsomely. Balancing flash and restrained grace was something Lil Baby, born Dominique Jones, learned from his neighborhood notoriety before music, when he was known as a local hustler and dice aficionado before committing to rap for a safer income stream. After the torrent of music that certified his arrival, the rapper took last year off, in the sense that he did not release an album or mixtape, though an endless stream of guest verses and a few one-off singles kept him relevant. A sneakily intricate rapper whose lyrics are often camouflaged by disarming singsong flows and a gravelly Southern drawl, Lil Baby has largely moved on from the open wounds of his earlier, bittersweet work.
There are various explanations for the source of the term hip-hop. While a number of people were influential in the creation of hip-hop, much credit is given to Kool Herc Clive Campbell , a Jamaican immigrant who was the first major hip-hop disc jockey. At a Bronx party on August 11, , he introduced the technique of playing the same album on two turntables and extending the drum section which became known as the breakbeat.
Poetic In Justice? Andrea L. Originally uploaded in SSRN. Courts routinely admit defendant-authored rap music lyrics as substantive evidence in the adjudication of criminal cases. In doing so, courts fail to recognize that rap music lyrics are art. Rather, judges view the interpretation of rap music lyrics as a subject of common knowledge, interpret the defendant's lyrics literally, and characterize lyrics as autobiographical depictions of actual events. In making admissibility decisions, courts must give consideration to the social constraints and artistic conventions impacting the composition and interpretation of rap music lyrics. More particularly, they must understand the commercialized nature of the rap music industry, artist claims of authenticity, and the use of poetic devices such as metaphor, boasting, perspective, and narrative.
The risk-return characteristics of art as an asset have been previously studied through aggregate price indexes. By contrast, we examine the long-run buy-and-hold performance of an actual portfolio, namely, the collection of John Maynard Keynes. We find that its performance has substantially exceeded existing estimates of art market returns.